Rosa de Santa María (de Lima) (1586-1617) and Mariana de Jesús Paredes (de Quito) (1618-1645) were the first two female Roman Catholic saints of Latin America. After briefly describing their lives, this presentation addresses how Rosa and Mariana became symbolic representatives of the identity of their compatriots, both descendants of Spaniards born in the Americas (criollos) and members of the indigenous populations. During their lives, they were perceived as protective presences because it was believed that through their prayers and bodily sacrifices, they obtained divine favors for their respective cities. First in colonial times, later during struggles from independence from Spain, and finally in republican times, these saints’ lives shed light upon women’s roles and issues of identity in Latin America. Of these two women, Rosa de Lima is, undoubtedly, the most important historical figure. She was canonized in 1671 and declared Patron Saint of the Americas, India, and the Philippines. She remained the only canonized saint of the Roman Catholic Church in the Americas—female or male—for two centuries. Mariana Paredes, born a year after Rosa’s death, was revered by the populace of Quito. Ecuadorians consider her a national heroine. Although saints are not typical of the population at large, the pursuit as well as the perception of holiness mirror social values. Saints’ lives shed light upon social issues of their time and place. The stories of these two saints and the transformation of their representation through the centuries provide an illustration of how religious figures and the religious imaginary become important forces in the development of identities and communities. The circumstances of their stories can help us understand the societies and the milieu of women’s lives in their historical times and places.