With the best of intentions, European colonial powers in the 19th and 20th centuries and the United States after World War II attempted regime change in the countries they occupied. Time and time again the regime change failed, often resulting in insurrection and civil war. This occurred in Asia, Africa, and in the greater Middle East, and was due in almost every case to ignorance of the country’s history and culture, and to the imposition of an unfamiliar structure of government.